उग्रराष्ट्रवाद

उग्रराष्ट्रवाद भनेको कुनै एक राज्यको वा मानिसको स्वार्थलाई बढावा दिने चरम राष्ट्रवाद हो। यसलाई सामान्यतः आफ्नो देश प्रतिको चरम अन्धभक्ती हो। जब राष्ट्रिय पुनर्जागरणको धारणा यसमा मिसिन्छ, उग्र राष्ट्रवाद फासीवादको एक प्रमुख आधार बन्छ। केही उग्रवादी संगठनहरूलाई केही देशका राज्यहरूद्वारा आतंककारी आन्दोलनको रूप मानिएको छ।

उग्र राष्ट्रवादी राजनीतिक दलसम्पादन

  • बुल्गेरिया:आताक[१]
  • साइप्रस: राष्ट्रिय जनमोर्चा [२]
  • जर्मनी: आल्टेरनाटिभ फुुअ दोएच्सलान्द [३][४]
  • युनान : एलिनिकी लिसी[५]
  • भारत : शिव सेना[६]
  • जापान: उदारवादी गणतन्त्र दल[७][८][९] (faction)
  • पोल्यान्ड: रूच नारोदोवी (अनुवाद: राष्ट्रिय अभियान)[१०]
  • रुस: रुसको उदारवादी गणतन्त्र दल[११] Rodina[१२]
  • म्यानमार: युनियन सोलिडारिटी एन्ड डेभलपमेन्ट पार्टी(] (सत्तारुढ सैन्य सरकारको प्रतिनिधि पार्टी)[१३][१४]
  • स्लोभाकिया: लुदोभा स्त्राना – नासे स्लोभेन्स्को, [१५]
  • स्पेन: भोक्स[१६][१७]
  • स्विजरल्यान्ड: स्विस पिपल्स पार्टी[१८]
  • टर्की: राष्ट्रवादी अभियान दल,[१९][२०] Great Union Party[२१]
  • युक्रेन : सोभोबोडा[२२]

सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरूसम्पादन

  1. Katsikas, Stefanos (२०११), Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria, I.B. Tauris, पृ: ६४। 
  2. Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. P. 87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan, and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  3. "The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history", Washington Post, २० अगस्ट २०१९, "A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ..." 
  4. "Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition", The Times, २३ जुलाई २०१९, "A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor." 
  5. "Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party", The Guardian, ७ जुलाई २०१९, "Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks." 
  6. Mark Magnier (८ मार्च २०१२), "In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes", Los Angeles Times, Articles.latimes.com, अन्तिम पहुँच २०१५-१२-०२ 
  7. "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis", eurasia review, १६ जुलाई २०१९, "The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism." 
  8. "Abe's cabinet reshuffle", East Asia Forum, १४ सेप्टेम्बर २०१९, "Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education." 
  9. Mark Poysden, Marco Bratt, सम्पादक (२००६), Global Studies: Japan and the Pacific Rim, KIT Publishers, पृ: ९७, "... Koizumi calls the war criminals 'martyrs', a view shared by many elderly veterans, Right-wing Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) lawmakers and ultra-nationalist groups . He now claims that he visits the shrine as a private citizen, not as the prime minister. It is an open secret in Japan that most LDP politicians are linked to ..." 
  10. "Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw", The Algemeiner, ३१ जनवरी २०१८। 
  11. "Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words", २१ फेब्रुअरी २०१३। 
  12. Van Herpen, Marcel H. (२०१५), Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy, Rowman & Littlefield, पृ: ३४। 
  13. Khin Moh Moh Lwin and Myo Set Pai (२० नोभेम्बर २०२०), "Far-right Buddhist nationalist candidates among biggest losers in 2020 election", Myanmar Now, अन्तिम पहुँच २३ नोभेम्बर २०२० 
  14. Internal Crisis Group (५ सेप्टेम्बर २०१७), Buddhism and State Power in Myanmar 
  15. "Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U.", New York Times, १७ डिसेम्बर २०१६। 
  16. Acha, Beatriz (६ जनवरी २०१९), "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista", Agenda Pública 
  17. Antón-Mellón, Joan (२९ अप्रिल २०१९), "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal", Agenda Pública 
  18. "Danger on the Swiss Stock Exchange", ING Group, ५ डिसेम्बर २०१८, "The ultra-nationalist Swiss People's Party (SVP or UDC) - the most powerful political movement in the country - is campaigning against European agreements." 
  19. Arman, Murat Necip (२००७), "The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism", CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151। 
  20. Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). "Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism". Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C.. 
  21. Göçek, Fatma Müge (२०१५), Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present and Collective Violence Against the Armenians, 1789-2009 (अङ्ग्रेजीमा), Oxford University Press, पृ: ४०२, आइएसबिएन 978-0-19-933420-9 
  22. "Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists", BBC, २५ डिसेम्बर २०१२, अन्तिम पहुँच १ मार्च २०१५