"सरुवा रोग" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन्
सा (रोबोट ले थप्दै: ky:Жугуштуу оорулар)
In [[चिकित्साशास्त्र|medicine]], '''infectious diseaseरोग''' or '''communicable disease''' is [[रोग|disease]] caused by a [[biology|biological]] agent such as by a [[virusभाइरस]], [[bacterium]] or [[parasite]]. This is contrasted to [[physics|physical]] causes, such as [[burn (injury)|burns]] or [[chemistry|chemical]] ones such as through [[intoxication]].
== Basics ==
Infectious diseases are the invasion of a [[host (biology)|host]] organism by a foreign [[replicator]], generally microorganisms, often called ''microbes,'' that are invisible to the naked eye. Microbes that cause illness are also known as ''pathogens.'' The most common pathogens are various bacteria र viruses, though a number of other microorganisms, including some kinds of [[fungi]] र [[protozoa|protozoa,]] also cause diseaseरोग. [[Prions]] are borderline, र [[meme]]s would not usually be considered in this scope. An infectious diseaseरोग is termed ''contagious'' if it is easily transmitted from one person to another.
An organism that a microbe infects is known as the host for that microbe. In the human host, a microorganism causes diseaseरोग by either disrupting a vital body process or stimulating the immune system to mount a defensive reaction. An immune response against a pathogen, which can include a high fever, inflammation, र other damaging symptoms, can be more devastating than the direct damage caused by the microbe.
=== Agents र vectors ===
Infectious diseaseरोग requires an ''agent'' र a ''mode of transmission'' (or ''[[Vector (biology)|vector]]''). A good example is [[malaria]], which is caused by Plasmodial [[parasite]]s, chiefly ''[[Plasmodium falciparum]]'' but does not affect humans unless the vector, the [[Anopheles]] [[mosquito]], is around to introduce the parasite into the [[human]] bloodstream.
The vector does not have to be biological. Many infectious diseases are transmitted by droplets which enter the airway (e.g. [[common cold]] र [[tuberculosis]]).
== Mortality from infectious diseases ==
The [[World Health Organization]] collects information on global deaths by [[ICD|International Classification of Diseaseरोग (ICD) code categories]]. The following table lists the top infectious diseaseरोग killers which caused more than 100,000 deaths in 2002 (estimated). 1993 data is also included for comparison.
{| cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0 border=1
:[[Tropical diseaseरोग]]s (6)
| 0.13 million
| 0.2%
:''(Note: The other categories of death are maternal र perinatal conditions (5.2%), nutritional deficiencies (0.9%), noncommunicable conditions (58.8%), र injuries (9.1%).)''
The top three single agent diseaseरोग killers are [[HIV]]/[[AIDS]], [[tuberculosis|TB]] र [[malaria]]. From 1993 to 2002, the death ranking for AIDS went up from 7th to 2nd र Hepatitis B went down from 6th to 11th. While the number of deaths has decreased in almost every diseaseरोग, it has increased four-fold in [[AIDS]].
Lower respiratory infections, which include various [[pneumonia]]s, र diarrheal diseases are caused by many different [[virus]]es, [[bacterium|bacteria]] or [[parasite]]s.
Childhood diseases include [[pertussis]], [[poliomyelitis]], [[diphtheria]], [[measles]] र [[tetanus]]. Children also make up a large percentage of lower respiratory र diarrheal deaths.
Tropical diseases include [[Chagas diseaseरोग]], [[dengue fever]], [[filariasis|lymphatic filariasis]], [[leishmaniasis]], [[onchocerciasis]], [[schistosomiasis]] र [[trypanosomiasis]].
=== Historic pandemics ===
A [[pandemic]] (or global [[epidemic]]) is a diseaseरोग that affects people over an extensive geographical area.
* The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 or [[Spanish Flu]] killed 25 to 40 million in 1 year (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).
** [[Influenza]] now kills about 250,000 to 500,000 worldwide each year.
* The [[Black Death]] of 1347 to 1352 killed 25 million in Europe over 5 years (estimate of 25 to 50% of Europe, Asia, र Africa - world population was 500 million).
=== Newनयां diseasesरोगहरु र pandemics ===
In some cases, a microorganism र its host live in reasonable harmony. Such is the case for many tropical viruses र the insects, monkeys, or other animals in which they have lived र reproduced for thousands or millions of years. Because the microbes र their hosts have co-evolved together, the hosts have gradually become resistant to the microorganisms. But when a microbe jumps from a long-time animal host to a human being, it may cease being a harmless parasite and—simply because it is new to the human species—become a pathogen. (See [[infection]]).
With most new infectious diseases, some human action is involved, changing the environment so that an existing [[microbe]] can take up residence in a new ecological [[niche|niche.]] Once that happens, a [[pathogen]] that had been confined to a remote habitat appears in a new or wider region, or a microbe that had infected only animals suddenly begins causing human diseaseरोग.
Several human activities have led to the emergence र spread of new diseases:
:'''Uncontrolled urbanization.''' The rapid growth of cities in many developing countries concentrates large numbers of people in crowded areas with poor sanitation, which foster the transmission of contagious diseases.
:'''Modern transport.''' Ships र other cargo carriers often harbor unintended "passengers," such as insects र rats, that can spread diseases to faraway destinations.
:'''High-speed globe-trotting.''' With international jet-airplane travel, people infected with a new diseaseरोग can carry the diseaseरोग to the far side of the world before their first symptoms appear.
The relationship between virulence र transmission is complex, र has important consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen. If a diseaseरोग is rapidly fatal, the host may die before the microbe can get passed along to another host. However, this cost may be overwhelmed by the short term benefit of higher infectiousness if transmission is linked to virulence, as it is for instance in the case of cholera (the explosive diarrhoea aids the bacterium in finding new hosts) or many respiratory infections (sneezing, coughing etc create infectious aerosols). Since it takes time for a microbe र a new host species to co-evolve an emerging pathogen may hit its earliest victims especially hard. It is usually in the first wave of a new diseaseरोग that death rates are highest.
== Diagnosis र therapy ==
=== Diagnosis ===
''Diagnosis'' is initially by medical history र physical examination, र imaging (such as [[X-ray]]s), but the principal tool in infectious diseaseरोग is the [[microbiological culture]]. In a culture, a [[growth medium]] is provided for a particular agent. After inoculation of a specimen of diseased fluid or tissue onto the medium, it is determined whether bacterial growth occurs. This works for a number of [[bacterium|bacteria]], for example [[Staphylococcus]] or [[Streptococcus]].
Certain agents cannot be [[microbiological culture|cultured]], for example the above-mentioned ''[[Treponema pallidum]]'' र most [[virus]]es. The first [[serology|serological]] markers were developed to diagnose [[syphilis]] (the [[Wassermann test]], later replaced by the [[VDRL]] र [[TPHA]] tests). Serology involves detecting the [[antibody|antibodies]] against an infectious agent in the patient's [[blood]]. In [[immunocompromised]] patients (e.g. [[AIDS]]), [[serology]] can be troublesome, because the antibody reaction is blunted.
A more recent development is direct detection of [[virus|viral]] proteins and/or DNA in [[blood]] or [[secretion]]s. This can be done by [[PCR]] (polymerase chain reaction), involving the amplification of viral DNA र its subsequent detection with anti-DNA probes.
==== Infectious रोगको बर्गिकरण ====
==== The classification of infectious disease ====
One way of proving that a given diseaseरोग is "infectious", is to satisfy [[Koch's postulates]] ([[Robert Koch]]), which demand that the [[infectious agent]] is identified in patients र not in controls, र that patients who contract the agent also develop the diseaseरोग. These postulates were tried र tested in the discovery of [[Mycobacteria]] as the cause for [[tuberculosis]]. Often, it is not possible to meet some of the criteria, even in diseases that are quite clearly infectious. For example, ''[[Treponema pallidum]]'', the causative [[spirochete]] of [[syphilis]], cannot be [[microbiological culture|cultured]] in vitro - however the organism can be cultured in rabbit testes].
[[Epidemiology]] is another important tool used to study diseaseरोग in a population. For infectious diseases it helps to determine if a diseaseरोग [[outbreak]] is sporadic (occasional occurrence), [[endemic (epidemiology)|endemic]] (regular cases often occurring in a region), [[epidemic]] (an unusually high number of cases in a region), or [[pandemic]] (a global epidemic).
=== Therapy ===
==== The work of an infectiologist ====
[[Physician|Doctors]] who specialise in the [[चिकित्साशास्त्र|medical treatment]] of infectious diseaseरोग are called ''infectiologists'' or ''infectious diseaseरोग specialists''. Generally, [[infection]]s are initially diagnosed by [[primary care]] physicians or [[internal medicine]] specialists. For example, an "uncomplicated" [[pneumonia]] will generally be treated by the [[internist]] or the [[pulmology|pulmonologist]] (lung physician).
The services of the infectious diseaseरोग team are called for when:
* The diseaseरोग has not been definitively diagnosed after an initial workup
* The patient is [[immunocompromised]] (for example, in [[AIDS]] or after [[chemotherapy]]);
* The [[infectious agent]] is of an uncommon nature (e.g. [[tropical diseaseरोग]]sहरु);
* The diseaseरोग has not responded to first line [[antibiotic]]s;
* The disease might be dangerous to other patients, र the patient might have to be isolated.
The work of the infectiologist therefore entails working with patients र doctors on one hand र [[laboratory science|laboratory scientists]] र [[immunology|immunologists]] on the other hand.
=== Historyइतिहास ===
[[Anton van Leeuwenhoek]] ([[1632]]-[[1723]]) advanced the science of microscopy, allowing easy visualization of bacteria.
[[Gerhard Domagk]] develops [[Sulphonamides]], the first broad spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs.
== यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्। ==
== See also ==
* [[Infection]]
* [[Microbiology]]


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