"मिश्रका पिरामिडहरू" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

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सा (रोबोट ले थप्दै: el:Πυραμίδες της Γκίζας)
सा (हिज्जे मिलाउँदै)
{{Orphan|date=सेप्टेम्बर २०११}}
[[मिश्र]]का पिरामिडहरुपिरामिडहरू, जस मध्ये केही सैबै भन्दा ठूला मानव निर्मित संरचना कहल्लिएका छन, [[प्राचिन मिश्र]] [[सभ्यता]]का सबैभन्दा अटल एवम् बलिया प्रतिक हुन्।
सामान्यतया धेरैजसो पुरातत्वविदहरुपुरातत्वविदहरू के मान्छन् भने, यिनीहरुकोयिनीहरूको निर्माण राजकिय, सौर्य र ज्योतिष चलनहरुचलनहरू सँग सम्बन्धित अन्त्येष्ठी (लाश गाढ्ने) स्मारकहरुकोस्मारकहरूको रुपमारूपमा गरिएको हो। र धेरैजसोको निर्माण [[मिश्रको पुरानो अधिराज्य|पुरानो]] र [[मिश्रको मध्य अधिराज्य|मध्य अधिराज्य]]को समयमा गरिएको हो।
[[चित्र:PyramidDatePalms.JPG|right|300px|thumb|१९औ शताब्दिको एक तस्बिरमा गिजाको महान् पिरामिड]]
== पिरामिडका प्रतिक ==
[[मिश्र]]का पिरामिडहरुकोपिरामिडहरूको आकारले घामबाट खसिरहेका किरणहरुलाईकिरणहरूलाई जनाउने विश्वाश गरिन्छ। धेरैजसोलाई अत्यन्त टल्किने सेतो चुनठुङ्गाले लेपिएको थियो जसका कारण टाढाबाट हेर्दा चम्किलो देखिन्थ्यो। अक्सर पिरामिडहरुकोपिरामिडहरूको नामाकरण पनि सूर्यको चमकलाई जनाउनेगरी गरिन्थ्यो। उदाहरणको लागि: [[दशुर]]को [[ढल्केको पिरामिड]]को औपचारिक नाम ''दक्षिणको चम्किलो पिरामिड'' थियो, र अल-लहुनको सेन्वोस्रेतको नाम ''सेन्वोस्रेत चम्किरहेछ'' थियो।
== ऐतिहासिक विकासक्रम ==
By the time of the early Dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried माburiedमा visually unremarkable bench-like structures known as [[mastaba]]s. The first historically documented pyramid is attributed to the architect [[Imhotep]], who माwhoमा constructing a tomb for the pharaoh [[Djozer]], first conceived the notion of stacking a number of mastabas on top of each other — thereby creating an edifice comprised of a number of steps that decreased माdecreasedमा size towards its apex. The result was the [[Pyramid of Djozer|Step Pyramid of Djozer]] — which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later Egyptians.
The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist [[Pharaoh|pharaonic]] rule, during the early part of the Old Kingdom. Over time, as the exercise of pharaonic authority became less centralised र more bureaucratised, the ability र willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale was reduced, र later pyramids were smaller, less well built र often hastily constructed.
Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred माoccurredमा what is present-day [[Sudan]]), after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of [[Napata]]. Whilst Napatan rule was brief र ceased माceasedमा 661 BC, the Egyptian influence had made an indelible impression, र during the later Sudanese Kingdom of [[Meroe]] (approximately माapproximatelyमा the period between 300 BC–AD 300) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred uniquely indigenous, but strongly Egyptian-inspired royal pyramid tombs constructed माconstructedमा the vicinity of the Meroitic capital city.
== निर्माण प्रविधि ==
The techniques used to construct Egypt's pyramids were initially developed by trial र error, र then further evolved based on local economic, resource र other considerations, over the thousand year pyramid-building phase of Egyptian civilization.
During the earliest period, मा the Third र Fourth Dynasties, pyramids were constructed wholly of stone. Granite (quarried माquarriedमा [[Aswan]] र transported downstream by barge) was usually the material of choice for the main body of these pyramids, while limestone was used as the outer casing. In early pyramids, the courses of stone forming the pyramid body were laid sloping inwards; however, this configuration was shown to be less stable than simply stacking horizontal courses on top of each other. The [[Bent Pyramid]] at [[Dashur]] represents the transition between these two building techniques; its lower section is built of sloping courses, while माwhileमा its upper section the stones are laid horizontally.
During the Fifth Dynasty the physical scale of pyramids was much reduced, र poor quality limestone replaced granite as the chief building material. Infilling with loose rubble was also used for the first time. This enabled pyramids to be built with fewer resources over much shorter periods.
During the Middle Kingdom pyramid construction techniques changed again. Most pyramids built at this time were little more than mountains of mud brick encased माencasedमा a veneer of polished limestone. In several cases, later pyramids were built on top of natural hills to further reduce the volume of material needed माneededमा their construction.
Paradoxically, the materials र methods of construction used माusedमा the earliest pyramids have ensured their survival माsurvivalमा a generally much better state of preservation than is the case with the pyramid monuments of later pharaohs.
== पिरामिड क्षेत्रहरुक्षेत्रहरू ==
हाल मिश्रमा बिभिन्न आकारका लगभग ९०वटा पिरामिडहरुपिरामिडहरू संरक्षणका बिभिन्न अबस्थमा रहेका छन्। धेरैजसोलाई पिरामिड-मैदानहरुमामैदानहरूमा समुहगत गरिएको छ। त्यस मध्येका महत्वपूर्णहरुमहत्वपूर्णहरू: (उत्तर देखि दक्षिण, स्थानको क्रममा)
अबु रबास is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid — the mostly ruined Pyramid of [[Djedefre]], the son र successor of [[Khufu (pharaoh)|Khufu]]. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of
[[Menkaure]] — the third largest of the [[Giza]] pyramids. On this basis Djedefre's edifice would have claimed the title of the fourth or fifth largest pyramid माpyramidमा Egypt.
Unfortunately its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone, र quarrying — which began माbeganमा Roman times — continued until as recently as the early 20th century. Today little remains apart from a few courses of stone superimposed upon the natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core — although a small adjacent satellite pyramid is माisमा a better state of preservation.
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[[गिजा]], on the southern outskirts of [[Cairo]] is the location of the [[Pyramid of Khufu]] (also known as the "Great Pyramid" र the "Pyramid of Cheops"), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of [[Khafre]] (or Kephren), र the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of [[Menkaure]] (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, र the [[Sphinx]].
Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, towards its apex. Interestingly this pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, र the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is, मा fact, smaller माsmallerमा both height र volume.
The गिजा necropolis has arguably been the world's most popular tourist destination since antiquity, र was popularised माpopularisedमा Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by [[Antipater of Sidon]] as one of the [[Seven Wonders of the World]]. Today it is the only one of the ancient Wonders still माstillमा existence.
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[[चित्र:pyramid of khaba 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|खाबाको अधुरो पिरामिड]]
This site, half way between गिजा र अबु सर, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is believed to be the Pharaoh [[Nebka]], whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh [[Khaba]], also known as [[Hudjefa]], successor to [[Sekhemket]]). Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of उनका step pyramid. Today it is approximately twenty metres माmetresमा height; had it been completed it is likely to have exceeded forty.
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[[चित्र:pyramids of niuserre and neferirkare 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Pyramids of Niuserre र Neferirkare at अबु सर, viewed from the southeast]]
There are a total of seven pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signaling a decrease माdecreaseमा royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, र are built of low quality local limestone.
The three major pyramids are those of [[Niuserre]] (which is also the most intact), [[Nferirkare]] र [[Sahure]]. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of [[Neferefre]]. All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of [[Nferirkare]] — is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some seventy metres माmetresमा height र then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filled माfilledमा with loose masonry.
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[[चित्र:pyramid of djozer 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Step Pyramid of Djozer]]
Major pyramids at [[सक्कारा]] include the [[Pyramid of Djozer|Step Pyramid of Djozer]] — the world's oldest monumental stone building — the [[Pyramid of Userkaf]] र the [[Pyramid of Teti]]. Also at Saqqara is the [[Pyramid of Unas]], which retains a pyramid causeway that is amongst the best-preserved माpreservedमा Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of antiquities' earliest restoration attempts, conducted under the auspices of one of the sons of [[Ramses II]]. Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djozer's successor [[Sekhemkhet]]. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djozer's.
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[[चित्र:pyramid of sneferu bent 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The southern or "Bent" Pyramid of Sneferu at दसुर. Uniquely, this pyramid retains much of its original polished limestone casing.]]
[[दसुर]] is arguably the most important pyramid field माfieldमा Egypt वाहिर Giza र Saqqara, although until recently the site was inaccessible due to its location within a military base, र hence was virtually unknown वाहिर archaeological circles.
The southern Pyramid of [[Sneferu]], commonly known as the [[Bent Pyramid]] is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial — but nonetheless visually arresting — success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, र serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all pyramids माpyramidsमा their original state.
The northern, or [[Red Pyramid]] built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world's first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest pyramid माpyramidमा Egypt — after the pyramids of [[Khufu]] र [[Khafre]] at [[Giza]]. Also at Dashur is the so-called [[Black Pyramid]] of [[Amenemhet III]].
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[[चित्र:pyramid of amenemhet 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The ruined Pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht]]
Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of [[Amenemhat I]] र उनका son, [[Senusret I]] (Sesostris I). The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The site which is माisमा the vicinity of the oasis of [[Fayyum]], midway between [[Dashur]] र [[Meidun]], र about 100 kilometres south of [[कायरो]], is believed to be माbeमा the vicinity of the ancient city of [[Iti-tawi]] (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.
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The pyramid at [[मेइदुन]] is one of three constructed during the reign of [[Sneferu]], र is believed by some to have been commenced by that pharaoh's father र predecessor, [[Huni]]. Some archaelogists also suggest that the Meidun pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful attempt at the construction of a "true" or smooth-sided pyramid.
The pyramid suffered a catastrophic collapse माcollapseमा antiquity, र today only the central parts of its stepped inner core remain standing, giving it an odd tower-like appearance that is unique among Egyptian pyramids. The hill that the pyramid sits atop is not a natural landscape feature — it is माisमा fact the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses र outer casing of the pyramid gave way.
It has been suggested that the collapse occurred while construction was underway on the [[Bent Pyramid]] at Dashur (also built by Sneferu), र that this may have been one of the reasons for the design changes implemented during construction of the latter edifice.
[[Amenemhet III]] was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, र the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at [[दसुर]]. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place.
In common with all Middle Kingdom pyramids it was built almost entirely of mud brick faced with limestone. Most of the stone was later pillaged for use माuseमा other buildings — a fate common to almost all of Egypt's pyramids — र today the Hawarra pyramid is little more than an eroded vaguely pyramid-shaped mountain of mud brick.
The huge mortuary temple that originally stood adjacent to this pyramid is believed to have formed the basis of the [[labyrinth]] mentioned by such ancient historians as [[Herodotus]], [[Strabo]] र [[Diodorus Siculus]], र which is said to have been the model for the labyrinth built by [[Daedalus]] for King [[Minos]] of [[Crete]] to house the [[Minotaur]].
[[चित्र:pyramid of senwosret 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Pyramid of Senwosret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base.]]
The pyramid of [[Senwosret II]] at Il Lahun is the southernmost pyramid structure माstructureमा Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount work necessary to construct it by ingeneously using as its foundation र core a 12 metre high natural limestone hill.
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