सा (रोबोट ले थप्दै: el:Πυραμίδες της Γκίζας)
सा (हिज्जे मिलाउँदै)
[[चित्र:PyramidDatePalms.JPG|right|300px|thumb|१९औ शताब्दिको एक तस्बिरमा गिजाको महान् पिरामिड]]
== पिरामिडका प्रतिक ==
== ऐतिहासिक विकासक्रम ==
By the time of the early Dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were
The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist [[Pharaoh|pharaonic]] rule, during the early part of the Old Kingdom. Over time, as the exercise of pharaonic authority became less centralised र more bureaucratised, the ability र willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale was reduced, र later pyramids were smaller, less well built र often hastily constructed.
Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building
== निर्माण प्रविधि ==
The techniques used to construct Egypt's pyramids were initially developed by trial र error, र then further evolved based on local economic, resource र other considerations, over the thousand year pyramid-building phase of Egyptian civilization.
During the earliest period,
During the Fifth Dynasty the physical scale of pyramids was much reduced, र poor quality limestone replaced granite as the chief building material. Infilling with loose rubble was also used for the first time. This enabled pyramids to be built with fewer resources over much shorter periods.
During the Middle Kingdom pyramid construction techniques changed again. Most pyramids built at this time were little more than mountains of mud brick
Paradoxically, the materials र methods of construction
हाल मिश्रमा बिभिन्न आकारका लगभग ९०वटा
अबु रबास is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid — the mostly ruined Pyramid of [[Djedefre]], the son र successor of [[Khufu (pharaoh)|Khufu]]. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of
[[Menkaure]] — the third largest of the [[Giza]] pyramids. On this basis Djedefre's edifice would have claimed the title of the fourth or fifth largest
Unfortunately its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone, र quarrying — which
[[गिजा]], on the southern outskirts of [[Cairo]] is the location of the [[Pyramid of Khufu]] (also known as the "Great Pyramid" र the "Pyramid of Cheops"), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of [[Khafre]] (or Kephren), र the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of [[Menkaure]] (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, र the [[Sphinx]].
Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, towards its apex. Interestingly this pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, र the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is,
The गिजा necropolis has arguably been the world's most popular tourist destination since antiquity, र was
[[चित्र:pyramid of khaba 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|खाबाको अधुरो पिरामिड]]
This site, half way between गिजा र अबु सर, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is believed to be the Pharaoh [[Nebka]], whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh [[Khaba]], also known as [[Hudjefa]], successor to [[Sekhemket]]). Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of उनका step pyramid. Today it is approximately twenty
[[चित्र:pyramids of niuserre and neferirkare 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Pyramids of Niuserre र Neferirkare at अबु सर, viewed from the southeast]]
There are a total of seven pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signaling a
The three major pyramids are those of [[Niuserre]] (which is also the most intact), [[Nferirkare]] र [[Sahure]]. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of [[Neferefre]]. All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of [[Nferirkare]] — is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some seventy
[[चित्र:pyramid of djozer 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Step Pyramid of Djozer]]
Major pyramids at [[सक्कारा]] include the [[Pyramid of Djozer|Step Pyramid of Djozer]] — the world's oldest monumental stone building — the [[Pyramid of Userkaf]] र the [[Pyramid of Teti]]. Also at Saqqara is the [[Pyramid of Unas]], which retains a pyramid causeway that is amongst the best-
[[चित्र:pyramid of sneferu bent 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The southern or "Bent" Pyramid of Sneferu at दसुर. Uniquely, this pyramid retains much of its original polished limestone casing.]]
[[दसुर]] is arguably the most important pyramid
The southern Pyramid of [[Sneferu]], commonly known as the [[Bent Pyramid]] is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial — but nonetheless visually arresting — success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, र serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all
The northern, or [[Red Pyramid]] built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world's first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest
[[चित्र:pyramid of amenemhet 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The ruined Pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht]]
Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of [[Amenemhat I]] र उनका son, [[Senusret I]] (Sesostris I). The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The site which
The pyramid at [[मेइदुन]] is one of three constructed during the reign of [[Sneferu]], र is believed by some to have been commenced by that pharaoh's father र predecessor, [[Huni]]. Some archaelogists also suggest that the Meidun pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful attempt at the construction of a "true" or smooth-sided pyramid.
The pyramid suffered a catastrophic
It has been suggested that the collapse occurred while construction was underway on the [[Bent Pyramid]] at Dashur (also built by Sneferu), र that this may have been one of the reasons for the design changes implemented during construction of the latter edifice.
[[Amenemhet III]] was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, र the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at [[दसुर]]. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place.
In common with all Middle Kingdom pyramids it was built almost entirely of mud brick faced with limestone. Most of the stone was later pillaged for
The huge mortuary temple that originally stood adjacent to this pyramid is believed to have formed the basis of the [[labyrinth]] mentioned by such ancient historians as [[Herodotus]], [[Strabo]] र [[Diodorus Siculus]], र which is said to have been the model for the labyrinth built by [[Daedalus]] for King [[Minos]] of [[Crete]] to house the [[Minotaur]].
[[चित्र:pyramid of senwosret 01.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Pyramid of Senwosret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base.]]
The pyramid of [[Senwosret II]] at Il Lahun is the southernmost pyramid
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