"यमुना नदी" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

पृष्ठलाई 'right|140px|thumb|यमुनाको स्रोत [[यमुनोत्री, [[उत्तरा...' संग हटाइदै
सा (r2.7.1) (रोबोट थप्दै: ms:Sungai Yamuna)
(पृष्ठलाई 'right|140px|thumb|यमुनाको स्रोत [[यमुनोत्री, [[उत्तरा...' संग हटाइदै)
[[File:Yamuna at Yamunotri.JPG|right|140px|thumb|यमुनाको स्रोत [[यमुनोत्री]], [[उत्तराखण्ड]]]]
'''यमुना''' (उर्दू:جمنا कोही बेला '''जमुना''' अथवा '''जम्ना''' भनिने) उत्तर भारतको सबैभन्दा ठूलो [[नदी]] [[गंगा]]को सहायक नदी हो। यमुना नदी [[यमुनोत्री]] ६,३८७ मिटर उचाईमा अवस्थित हिमनद(Glacier)बाट निस्की कुल १,३७६ कि० मि० लामो यात्रा तय गर्दै [[इलाहाबाद]] अथवा [[प्रयाग]]को [[त्रिवेणी]]मा पुगी गंगासित मिल्दछ।
{{translation}}
It crosses several states, [[Uttarakhand]], [[Haryana]] and [[Uttar Pradesh]], passing by [[Himachal Pradesh]] and later [[Delhi]], and meets several of its tributaries on the way, including [[Tons River|Tons]], its largest and longest tributary, [[Chambal River|Chambal]], which has its own large basin, followed by [[Sindh River|Sindh]], the [[Betwa]], and [[Ken River|Ken]]. Most importantly it creates the highly fertile alluvial, 'Yamuna-Ganga [[Doab]]' region between itself and the [[Ganges]] in the [[Indo-Gangetic plain]]. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres (cbm) and usage of 4,400 cbm (of which irrigation constitutes 96 per cent), the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi’s water supplies. Just like the Ganges, the Yamuna too is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as goddess Yamuna, throughout its course. In [[Hindu mythology]], she is the daughter of Sun God, [[Surya]], and sister of [[Yama]], the God of Death, hence also known as [[Yami]] and according to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death <ref name=hy>{{cite book |title=Hydrology and water resources of India- Volume 57 of Water science and technology library |last=Jain |first=Sharad K.|authorlink= |coauthors=Pushpendra K. Agarwal, Vijay P. Singh |year=2007|publisher=Springer|location= |isbn=1402051794|page=344–354 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ZKs1gBhJSWIC&pg=RA1-PA345&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false |ref= }}</ref><ref name=brit>{{cite book |title=Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5 |last=Hoiberg |first=Dale|authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2000|publisher= Popular Prakashan|location= |isbn=0852297602|page=290–291|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DPP7O3nb3g0C&pg=PA290&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false |ref= }}</ref>.
 
The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad in Delhi, about 375&nbsp;km, where the discharge of waste water through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted after Wazirabad in Delhi. One official describes the river as a "sewage drain" with [[biochemical oxygen demand]] (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28&nbsp;mg/l and high [[coliform]] content <ref>{{cite web |title='Ganga is the most polluted river' |url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/2003/11/23/stories/2003112300531100.htm |date=Nov 23, 2003 |publisher=[[The Hindu]] |page=}}</ref>. There are three main sources of pollution in the river, namely households and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture along with resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites.
 
==Course and catchment==
[[File:Himalayas at dusk from Mussoorie, Uttarakhand.jpg|left|300px|thumb|बन्दर पुँछ शिखर, [[मसूरी]]बाट हेर्दा यमुनाको स्रोत]]
[[File:Yamunotri temple and ashram.jpg|left|180px|thumb| यमुना नदीमा निर्मित [[यमुनोत्री]] मन्दिर]][[File:DoabUnitedProvincesIGI1908.jpg|right|290px|thumb|The [[Doab]], [[United Provinces of Agra and Oudh|United Provinces]],<small> 1908 map</small>]]
The source of Yamuna lies in the [[Yamunotri]] Glacier at a height 6,387 mtrs., on the south western slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the [[Mussoorie]] range of [[Lower Himalayan Range|Lower Himalayas]], in the [[Uttarkashi district]], [[Uttarakhand]], north of [[Haridwar]] <ref name=hy/>. Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess, Yamuna is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, and part of the [[Chota Char Dham]] [[Yatra]] circuit. Also standing close to the temple, on its 13&nbsp;km trek route, that follows the right bank of the river, lies the ''Markendeya Tirtha'', where the sage [[Markandeya]] wrote the [[Markandeya Purana]] <ref name=utt>[http://uttarkashi.nic.in/aboutDistt/Temple.htm Yamunotri Temple] [[Uttarkashi district]] website.</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=The holy Himalaya: a geographical interpretation of Garhwal - Yamuna Drainage System|last=Nand|first=Nitya |authorlink= |coauthors=Kamlesh Kumar|year=1989|publisher=Daya Books|location= |isbn=8170350557|page=49 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=wmNGKpcE83cC&pg=PA49&dq=Yamuna&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}</ref>.
 
From here it flows southwards, for about 200&nbsp;km through the Lower Himalayas and the [[Shivalik Hills]] Range and [[morainic]] deposited are found in its steep Upper Yamuna valley, highlighted with [[geomorphic]] features such as [[interlocking spurs]], steep rock benches, semen, and [[stream terrace]]s. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, like ones near Naugoan. An important part of its early [[Water catchment area|catchment area]] totalling 2,320&nbsp;km² lies in [[Himachal Pradesh]], and an important tributary draining the Upper Catchment Area is the [[Tons River|Tons]], Yamuna's largest and longest tributary, which rises from the Hari-ki-dun valley and holds water more than the main stream, which it merges after Kalsi near [[Dehradun]]. The entire drainage system of the river stretches all the way between Giri-[[Sutlej]] catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-[[Bhilangna]] catchment in [[Garhwal]], indeed the southern ridge of [[Shimla]] is also drained into this system.
 
Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Kunta, Hanuman Ganga and Bata tributaries, which drain the Upper Catchment Area of the vast Yamuna basin of semen <ref>[http://www.webindia123.com/himachal/land/rivers.htm#R General outline of rivers in Himachal @ webindia123]</ref>. Thereafter the river descends on to the plains of [[Doon Valley]], at Dak Pathar near [[Dehradun]]. Here through a [[weir]] dam, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation, little further down where Yamuna is met by the Assan River, lies the [[Assan barrage]], which hosts a Bird Sanctuary as well. After passing the [[Sikh]] pilgrimage town of [[Paonta Sahib]], it reaches [[Tajewala]] in [[Yamuna Nagar district]], of [[Haryana]], where a dam built in 1873, is the originating place of two important canals, the Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern [[Yamuna Canal]], which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) crosses [[Yamuna Nagar]], [[Karnal]] and [[Panipat]] before reaching the Haiderpur treatment plant, which supplies part of municipal water supply to [[Delhi]], further it also receives waste water from Yamuna Nagar and Panipat cities. Yamuna is replenished again after this by seasonal streams and groundwater [[accrual]], in fact during the dry season, it remains dry in many stretches from Tajewala till Delhi, where it enters near Palla village after traversing 224&nbsp;km.
 
The Yamuna also creates natural state borders between the Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states, and further down between the state of [[Haryana]] and [[Uttar Pradesh]]. Along with Ganga to which run almost parallel after it touches the [[Indo-Gangetic plain]], the largest [[alluvial]] fertile plain in the world, it creates the Ganga-Yamuna [[Doab]] region spread across 69,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>, one-third of the entire plain, and today known for its agricultural outputs, prominent among them is the cultivation of [[Basmati]] Rice. The plain itself supports one-third of India's population through its farming <ref> {{cite book |title=Archaeology of Lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab (circa 1200 B.C. to 1200 A.D.)|last=Sharma|first=Deo Prakash |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2006|publisher=Bharatiya Kala Prakashan|location= |isbn=8180900339 |page=10, 214 |url= |ref= |quote="[[Doab]] is a [[Persian language|Persian]] word, from ''Do-Ab'', literally meaning 'two rivers', or land between two rivers".}}</ref>.
[[File:Indo-Gangetic Plain.jpg|right|200px|thumb|Course of Yamuna, in the [[Indo-Gangetic Plain]]]]
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
|-
! State
! Catchment area (km<sup>2</sup>)
! % of catchment area
|-
|[[Uttar Pradesh]] and [[Uttarakhand]]
|74,208
|21.5 %
|-
|[[Himachal Pradesh]]
|5,799
|1.6
|-
|[[Haryana]]
|21,265
|6.5
|-
|[[Rajasthan]]
|102,883
|29.8
|-
|[[Madhya Pradesh]]
|14,023
|40.6
|-
|[[Delhi]]
|1,485
|0.4
|}
 
Subsequently, it flows through the states of [[Delhi]], [[Haryana]] and [[Uttar Pradesh]], before merging with the [[Ganges]] at a sacred spot known as [[Triveni Sangam]] in [[Allahabad]] after traversing a distance of {{km to mi|1376}}. Here pilgrims travel by boats to platforms erected mid stream to offer prayers. During the [[Kumbh Mela]], held every 12 years, the [[ghat]]s around the Sangam are venue of large congregation of people, who take dip in the sacred waters of the confluence <ref>[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,798222,00.html At the Three Rivers] ''[[TIME]]'', February 23, 1948.</ref>. The cities of [[Baghpat]], [[Delhi]], [[Noida]], [[Mathura, Uttar Pradesh|Mathura]], [[Agra]], [[Firozabad]], [[Etawah]], [[Kalpi]], [[Hamirpur]], [[Allahabad]] lie on its banks. At [[Etawah]], it meets it another important tributary, [[Chambal River|Chambal]], followed by a host of [[tributaries]] further down, including, Sindh, the [[Betwa]], and [[Ken River|Ken]] <ref name=brit/><ref>[http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/crisis/River-yamuna.htm State of River Yamuna]</ref>.
 
==Ancient literature and history==
[[File:Krishna carried over river yamuna.jpg|left|220px|thumb|[[Vasudev]] carrying baby Lord [[Krishna]] across the Yamuna, an important legend of [[Bhagavata Purana]]]]
[[File:Divinité fluviale Inde Musée Guimet 1107.jpg|thumb|An 8th-century sculpture depicting Yamuna personified as a goddess]]
 
Literally meaning "twins" in [[Sanskrit]], as it runs parallel to the [[Ganges]], its name is mentioned at many places in the [[Rig Veda]], written during the [[Vedic period]] ca between 1700–1100 BC, and also in the later [[Atharvaveda]], and the [[Brahmana]]s including [[Aitareya Brahmana]] and [[Shatapatha Brahmana]] <ref>{{cite book |title=Vedic Index of Names and Subjects (Volume 2)|last=Macdonell |first=Arthur Anthony|authorlink= |coauthors=Arthur Berriedale Keith |year=1995|publisher=[[Motilal Banarsidass]] |location= |isbn=8120813332|page=186|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=U5GaKHfNzScC&pg=PA186&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false|ref= }}</ref>. In Rig Veda, the story of the Yamuna describes her "excessive love" for her twin, [[Yama]], who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself, which she does in [[Krishna]]. The tale is further detailed in the 16th century [[Sanskrit]] hymn, ''Yamunashtakam'', an ode by philosopher [[Vallabhacharya]]. Here the story of descent to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world has been put in verse. The hymn also he praises her for being the source of all spiritual abilities, while Ganga is considered an epitome of asceticism and higher knowledge and can grant us ''[[Moksha]]'' or [[liberation]], it is Yamuna, who being a holder of infinite love and compassion, can grant us freedom from even death, the realm of her elder brother. She rushes down the Kalinda Mountain, and verily describes her as the daughter of Kalinda, giving her another name, ''Kalindi'', the backdrop of Krishna Leela. The text also talk about her water being of the colour of Lord Krishna, which is dark (Shyam) <ref>{{cite book |title= Earth democracy: justice, sustainability and peace-G - Reference,Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series |last=Shiva|first= Vandana |authorlink=Vandana Shiva |coauthors= |year=2006|publisher=Zed Books|location= |isbn=1842777777|page=172–173 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=iQzwwzBYGDkC&pg=PA172&dq=Yamuna&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Troubled waters: religion, ethics, and the global water crisis |last=Chamberlain|first=Gary|authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2008|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=0742552454|page=18|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=oAHhdczi9CcC&pg=PA16&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false|ref= }}</ref>.
 
It is mention as [[Iomanes]] ([[Ioames]]) in the surveys of [[Seleucus I Nicator]], an officer of [[Alexander the Great]] and one of the [[Diadochi]], who visited India in 305 BC, later [[Megasthenes]], a Greek traveller and geographer, visited India, sometimes before 288 BC, the date of [[Chandragupta]]'s death, also mention the river in his text ''[[Indica (Megasthenes)|Indica]]'', where he described the region around it as the land of Surasena <ref>{{cite book |title=Megasthenes and Indian Religion- Volume 11 of History and Culture Series |last=Dahlaquist |first=Allan |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1996|publisher=[[Motilal Banarsidass]] Publ.|location= |isbn=8120813235|page=386 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=xp35-8gTRDkC&pg=PA130&dq=Yamuna&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}</ref>. In ''[[Mahabharata]]'', [[Indraprastha]], the capital of [[Pandavas]] was also situated on the banks of Yamuna, it is considered to the modern day city of Delhi.
 
There is evidence indicating Yamuna was a tributary of the [[Ghaggar]] river, also known as the [[Vedic Sarasvati River]] in the ancient past and the rivers were collectively known as ''Sapta Sindhu'' or seven streams. It changed its course to east following a [[tectonic]] event in north India and became a tributary of the Ganges instead. As the it is believed that the Sarasvati river dried and it also meant the end of many [[Indus Valley civilization]] settlements, and creation of the [[Thar desert]], the Ghaggar-Hakra river now flows only during the monsoon season <ref>{{cite book |title=Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology |last=Ghosh |first=A. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1991|publisher=BRILL |location= |isbn=9004092641|page= 214 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Wba-EZhZcfgC&pg=PA214&lpg=PA214&dq=yamuna+ghaggar+tributary&source=web&ots=zQcdxns2o9&sig=PGW3O2ddkPKCdDu37THMb7mxLL8&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result |ref= }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=In Search of the Cradle of Civilization |last=Feuerstein |first=Georg |authorlink= |coauthors=Subhash Kak, David Frawley |year=2001|publisher=Quest Books|location= |isbn=0835607410 |page=89 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Ermk_FmwcS4C&pg=PA89&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization|last=Frawley|first=David |authorlink=David Frawley |coauthors= |year=2000|publisher=Lotus Press|location= |isbn=0910261377|page=95|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=DM58BhuR2KwC&pg=PA108&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false|ref= }}</ref>. The importance of the Ganga-Yamuna river basin, and the [[Doab]] region as traditional the seat of power, can be derived from the fact, in much of early history of India, most of great empires, which ruled over majority of India, until the [[Chalukyas]] King, [[Vinayaditya]], were based in the highly fertile Ganga-Yamuna basin, including the [[Magadha]] (ca 600 BC), [[Maurya Empire]] (321-185 BC), [[Sunga Empire]] (185-73 BCE), [[Kushan Empire]] (1st–3rd centuries CE), [[Gupta Empire]] (280–550 CE), and many had their capitals here, in cities like [[Pataliputra]] or [[Mathura]]. These rivers were revered throughout these kingdoms that flourished on their banks, in fact ever since the period of [[Chandragupta II]] (r. 375-415 CE), statues both Ganga and Yamuna became common throughout the [[Gupta Empire]]. Further to the South, images of Ganga and Yamuna are found amidst shrines of the Chalukyas, [[Rashtrakutas]] (753–982), as well as on their royal seals, and prior to them, the [[Chola Empire]] too added the river into their architectural motifs. The Three River Goddess shrine, next of famous Kailash rock-cut Temple at [[Ellora]], built by Rashtrakuta King, [[Govinda III]], shows Ganga flanked by the Yamuna and Saraswati <ref>{{cite book |title=Lives of Indian images |last=Davis|first=Richard H. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1999|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=0691005206|page=74–76|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=5OGFrDcLbogC&pg=PA75&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false |ref= }}</ref>.
 
==Mythology==
{{main|Yami}}
 
The goddess of the river, also known as Yami, is the sister of [[Yama (Hinduism)|Yama]], god of [[death]], and the daughter of [[Surya]], the [[Sun god]], and his wife [[Saranyu]]<ref>[[Bhagavata Purana]] 8.13.9</ref>. The river Yamuna is also connected to the religious beliefs surrounding [[Krishna]] and various stories connected with Him are found in [[Hindu mythology]], especially the [[Puranas]], like that of ''[[Kaliya]] Daman'', the subduing of [[Kaliya]], a poisonous ''[[Naga (mythology)|Nāga]]'' snake, which had inhabited the river and terrorized the people of [[Braja]].<ref>{{cite book |title=Classical Hindu mythology: a reader in the Sanskrit Purānas |last=Dimmitt|first=Cornelia|authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1978|publisher=Temple University Press|location= |isbn=0877221227 |page=329 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=TmFOX7q2IqgC&pg=PA329&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false |ref= }}</ref><ref>[http://www.celextel.org/stotrasother/yamunashtakam.html Yamunashtakam Text and Translation]</ref>.
 
==Important tributaries==
* [[Tons River]], Yamuna's largest and longest tributary, rises in the 20,720&nbsp;ft (6,315 meters) high Bandarpoonch mountain, and has a large basin in [[Himachal Pradesh]]. It meets Yamuna below Kalsi near [[Dehradun]], Uttarakhand.
* [[Hindon River]], originates in the [[Saharanpur District]], from Upper [[Shivalik]] in [[Lower Himalayan Range]], is entirely rainfed and has a [[drainage basin|catchment area]] of 7, 083&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>, traverses 400&nbsp;km through [[Muzaffarnagar District]], [[Meerut District]], [[Baghpat District]], [[Ghaziabad, India|Ghaziabad]], [[Noida]], [[Greater Noida]], before joining Yamuna just outside [[Delhi]].
* [[Ken River]], flows through [[Bundelkhand]] region of [[Madhya Pradesh]] and Uttar Pradesh, it originates near village Ahirgawan in [[Jabalpur district]] and travels a distance of 427&nbsp;km, before merging with the Yamuna at Chilla village, near [[Fatehpur, Fatehpur|Fatehpur]] in Uttar Pradesh, and has an overall [[drainage basin]] of 28,058&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>.
* [[Chambal River]], known as ''Charmanvati'' in ancient times, flows through Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, with a drainage basin of 143,219&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup> and traverses a total distance of 960&nbsp;km, from its source in [[Vindhya Range]], near [[Mhow]] and support hydro-power generation at [[Gandhi Sagar dam]], [[Rana Pratap Sagar dam]] and Jawahar Sagar dam, before merging into the Yamuna south east f Sohan Goan, in [[Etawah district]], shortly theerafter followed by another tributary, the [[Sindh River]].
 
==Irrigation==
[[File:Agra canal headworks1871a.jpg|right|200px|thumb|[[Agra Canal]] headworks at [[Okhla]] barrage, Delhi. 1871.]]
The importance of Yamuna in the [[Indo-Gangetic Plain]]s is enhanced by its many canals, some dating back to as early as 14th century CE by the [[Tughlaq dynasty]], which built the ''Nahr-i-Bahisht'' (Paradise), parallel to the river, it was later restored and extended by the [[Mughals]] in the first half of seventeenth century, by engineer Ali Mardan Khan, starting from Benawas where the river enters the plains and terminating near the Mughal capital, [[Shahjahanabad]], the present city of Delhi <ref>{{cite book |title=The History of cartography, Volume 2, Part 1 |last=Woodward |first=David |authorlink= |coauthors=John Brian Harley |year=1987 |publisher=Oxford University Press US|location= |isbn=0226316351|page=438 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ocoV2iI4vcoC&pg=RA2-PA311&dq=Yamuna+River&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}</ref>. As the Yamuna enters the Northern plains near Dak Pathar at a height of 790 meters, two canals namely, the Eastern and Western [[Yamuna Canal]]s commence from the [[Assan barrage]] about 11 kilometers from Dak Pathar in [[Doon Valley]], the canals irrigate vast tracts of lands in the region, then once its passes Delhi, it feeds the [[Agra Canal]] built in in 1874, which starts from [[Okhla]] barrage beyond the Nizamuddin bridge, and the high land between the Khari-Nadi and the Yamuna and before joining the Banganga river about {{nowrap|20 miles}} below [[Agra]]. Thus during the summer season, the stretch above Agra resembles a minor stream <ref name=brit/>.
 
A heavy freight canal, known as the [[Sutlej]]-Yamuna Link (SYL), is being built westwards from near its headwaters through the [[Punjab region]] near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the [[Sutlej]]-[[Indus]] [[Drainage basin|watershed]]. This will connect the entire [[Ganges]], which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India's east coast to the west coast and the [[Arabian sea]], drastically shortening shipping distances and creating important commercial links for north-central India's large population. The canal starts near Palla village near Delhi, and was to transfer Haryana's share of 3.5 [[Acre-feet|MAF]] from [[Indus]] Basin, though state of Haryana has completed its portion, Punjab is against its construction, and the state legislature passed the "Punjab Termination of Agreement Act 2004", which declared earlier agreements null and void <ref name=hy/>.
 
==Management==
The stretch of the river form its origin to [[Okhla]] in [[Delhi]] is called “Upper Yamuna”. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed amongst the five basin states, namely Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarankhand, Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi, on 12 May, 1994 for sharing of the water of Upper Yamuna. This led to the formation of Upper Yamuna River Board under [[Ministry of Water Resources (India)|Ministry of Water Resources]], whose primary functions are regulation of the allocation of available flows amongst the beneficiary states and also for monitoring the return flows; monitoring conserving and upgrading the quality of surface and ground water; maintaining hydro-meteorological data for the basin; over viewing plans for watershed management; monitoring and reviewing the progress of all projects up to and including Okhla barrage.<ref>[http://uyrb.nic.in/ Upper Yamuna River Board] Official website.</ref>
 
Flood forecasting systems are established at Poanta Sahib, where Tons, Pawar and Giri tributaries meet, followed by [[Tajewala]], [[Kalanaur, Haryana]] and Mawai before Delhi, the river take 60 hours to travel from Tajewala to Delhi, thus allowing a two-day advance flood warning period.<ref name=hy/><ref>{{cite book |title=India's Water Wealth - Flood Forecasting system of Yamuna |last=Rao |first=K.L.|authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1979|publisher=Orient Blackswan|location= |isbn=8125007040 |page= 163|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DZNrXuA2y3MC&pg=PA163&dq=Yamuna&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}.</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Himalayan rivers, lakes, and glaciers |last=Negi |first=Sharad Singh |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1991|publisher=Indus Publishing|location= |isbn=8185182612 |page= 141–142|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=5YtUShKY8zcC&pg=PA142&dq=Yamuna&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=Yamuna&f=false |ref= }}</ref> The Central Water Commission started flood-forecasting services in 1958 with the setting up of its first forecasting station on Yamuna at Delhi Railway Bridge.<ref>[http://mowr.gov.in/searchdetail.asp?lid=357&skey=yamuna&langid=1 Flood Forecasting Network in India] [[Ministry of Water Resources (India)|Ministry of Water Resources]] website.</ref>
 
==Geography and Wildlife==
 
The catchment area of the river, especially till its touches the plains, is replete with [[Alpine]], semi alpine, temperate and [[sub-tropical]] vegetation, and vast areas are under forest over, and supports extensive animal life.
 
Yamuna is the frontier of the [[Asian Elephant]]. West of the Yamuna, there are no [[elephant]]s to be found over 900 [[kilometre|km]] of the western [[Himalayas]] and their foothills. The [[forest]]s of the lower Yamuna offer ideal corridors for [[elephant]] movement. The principal [[forest]]s to be found here are of [[Sal tree|sal]] , ''khair'' ([[acacia]]) , and ''sissoo'' ([[rosewood]]) trees, and the [[Chir Pine]] forests of the [[Shivalik Hills]].
 
==Pollution==
[[File:Yamuna river near the Himalayas.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Yamuna river near the Himalayas, just as its hits the plains, beyond [[Dehradun]]]]
, the waters of Yamuna distinguishable as "clear blue" as compared to silt-ridden yellow of the Ganges <ref name=imp>[http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V01_053.gif The Ganges and the Jumna] [[The Imperial Gazetteer of India]], 1909 v. 1, ''p. 23.''</ref>. However, due to high density population growth, rapid industrialization, today Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially around [[New Delhi]], the capital of India, which dumps about 58% of its waste into the river. Though numerous attempts have been made to clean it, the efforts have proven to be futile. Although the government of India has spent nearly $500 million to clean up the river, the river continues to be polluted with garbage while most sewage treatment facilities are underfunded or malfunctioning. In addition, the water in this river remains stagnant for almost 9 months in a year aggravating the situation. Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 MLD (million litres per day) of sewage in the river. The government of India over the next five years has prepared plans to rebuild and repair the sewage system and the drains that empty into the river. To address river pollution, certain measures of cleaning river have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) of the Government of India (GOI) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi under an action plan (Yamuna Action Plan-YAP) which is being implemented since 1993 by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) is participating in the [[Yamuna Action Plan]] in 15 of the above 21 towns (excluding 6 towns of [[Haryana]] included later on the direction of [[Supreme Court of India]]) with soft loan assistance of 17.773 billion [[Japanese Yen]] (equivalent to about Rs. 700 crore INR) while GOI is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns added later. The Indian government's plans to repair sewage lines is predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by the year 2010.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Pepper
| first = Daniel
| coauthors =
| title = India's "flush-and-forget" mind-set
| work = SFGate.com
| pages = A17-A18
| language =
| publisher = [[San Francisco Chronicle]]
| date = 2007-07-27
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/07/27/MNGMJR7G6S1.DTL&hw=yamuna&sn=001&sc=1000
| accessdate = 2007-07-27 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=CAG castigates Delhi Govt over Yamuna river pollution |url= http://www.expressindia.com/news/ie/daily/20000408/ina08010.html|date=April 8, 2000 |publisher=[[Indian Express]] |page=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=India's rivers are drowning in pollution |url=http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/06/11/100083453/index.htm |date= June 4, 2007|publisher=[[Fortune (magazine)]] |page=|author=Daniel Pepper}}</ref>.
 
However in 2009, the Union government admitted to the [[Lok Sabha]] (Indian Parliament), the failure of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) and Yamuna Action Plan (YAP), saying that "rivers Ganga and Yamuna are no cleaner now than two decades ago" despite spending over Rs 1,700 crore to control pollution. According to a [[Centre for Science and Environment|CSE]] official these plans adopted the [[Thames]] model, which based on a centralized sewage treatment system, this meant that huge sum of money and a 24-hr power supply were needed to manage the treatment plants, while only 8-hr power supply was available, contributing to their failure<ref>{{cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Failure of Ganga, Yamuna projects.. |url= http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/city/chennai/Failure-of-Ganga-Yamuna-projects-no-deterrence-for-TN-govt/articleshow/4969536.cms|publisher=[[The Times of India]] |date= September 2009}}</ref>.In August 2009, he Delhi Jal Board (DJB) initiated its plan for resuscitating the Yamuna’s 22-km stretch in Delhi by constructing interceptor sewers, at the cost of about Rs 1,800 crore <ref>{{cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Inflow to Yamuna to be cleaned up at last |url= http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/inflow-to-yamuna-to-be-cleaned-up-at-last/509240/|publisher=[[Indian Express]] |date=Aug 31, 2009 }}</ref>.
 
==In popular culture==
In 2005, the award winning documentary [[Jijivisha]] was made on Yamuna.
 
==Gallery==
<gallery>
File:On the banks of New Yamuna bridge, Allahabad.jpg|New Yamuna bridge, [[Allahabad]].
File:Akbar's adventure with the elephant Hawa'i, in 1561.jpg|[[Akbar]]'s adventure with the elephant Hawa'i on Yamuna, near [[Agra Fort]], 1561.<small> [[Akbarnama]] folio.</small>
File:YamunaRiver.jpg|Yamuna as seen from the [[Taj Mahal]], Agra.
File:Madan Mohan temple, on the Yamuna, Vrindavan, 1789.jpg|Madan Mohan temple, on the Yamuna, Vrindavan, 1789, it has shifted further away since then.
File:Keshighat Vrindavan.JPG|'Keshi Ghat' on the Yamuna, [[Vrindavan]].
</gallery>
 
==Books==
* {{cite book |title=River of love in an age of pollution: the Yamuna River of northern India |last=Haberman |first=David L. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2006|publisher=[[University of California Press]]|location= |isbn=0520247906|page= |url= http://books.google.com/books?id=CJFdkkGSV8gC&pg=PA1&dq=Yamuna&lr=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false|ref= }}
* {{cite book |title=Sustainable regional water management of Yamuna river basin: A case study|last=Schumann |first=A. H. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2001|publisher=[[International Association of Hydrological Sciences]]([[IAHS]])|isbn=1901502511|page=25–32 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=YT_5Lp0JqVEC&pg=PA25&dq=Yamuna+River#v=onepage&q=Yamuna%20River&f=false |ref= }}
 
==References==
{{Reflist}}
 
==External links==
{{commonscat|Yamuna River}}
*[http://www.tri-murti.com/ancientindia/rigHistory/ch4.htm The Geography of the Rigveda]
* [http://yap.nic.in/yamuna.asp Yamuna Action Plan]
 
{{Hydrology of Uttarakhand}}
{{Geo HP}}
{{Hydrology of Uttar Pradesh}}
{{Waters of South Asia}}
 
[[Category:Yamuna River| ]]
[[Category:Rivers of India]]
[[Category:Rivers of Uttarakhand]]
[[Category:Rivers of Uttar Pradesh]]
[[Category:Tributaries of the Ganges]]
[[Category:Rigvedic rivers]]
[[Category:Sacred rivers]]
[[Category:Sanskrit words and phrases]]
 
[[als:Yamuna]]
[[ar:نهر يمنا]]
[[be:Рака Джамна]]
[[be-x-old:Джамна]]
[[bg:Ямуна]]
[[bn:যমুনা নদী (ভারত)]]
[[ca:Yamuna]]
[[cs:Jamuna]]
[[cy:Afon Yamuna]]
[[da:Yamuna]]
[[de:Yamuna]]
[[en:Yamuna]]
[[es:Río Yamuna]]
[[et:Yamuna]]
[[eu:Iamuna ibaia]]
[[fi:Yamuna]]
[[fr:Yamunâ]]
[[gl:Río Yamuna]]
[[gu:યમુના]]
[[hi:यमुना नदी]]
[[id:Sungai Yamuna]]
[[it:Yamuna (fiume)]]
[[ja:ヤムナー川]]
[[kn:ಯಮುನಾ]]
[[ko:야무나 강]]
[[lt:Džamna]]
[[ml:യമുന]]
[[ms:Sungai Yamuna]]
[[nl:Yamuna]]
[[nn:Yamuna]]
[[no:Yamuna]]
[[pl:Jamuna (rzeka)]]
[[pnb:دریاۓ جمنا]]
[[pt:Rio Yamuna]]
[[ru:Джамна]]
[[simple:Yamuna]]
[[sk:Jamuna]]
[[sv:Yamuna]]
[[ta:யமுனை ஆறு]]
[[te:యమునా నది]]
[[uk:Ямуна]]
[[ur:دریائے جمنا]]
[[zh:亞穆納河]]
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