"उर्दु भाषा" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

उर्दू भाषा Infobox added
कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन
(उर्दू भाषा Infobox added)
चिनो: २०१७ स्रोत सम्पादन
 
{{pp-semi|small=yes}}
{{about|Modern Standard Urdu}}
{{pp-semi|small=yes}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2013}}
{{Infobox language
|name= उर्दू (''اردو'')
|nativename={{lang|ur|{{nqNastaliq|اُردُوur|اردو}}}}
|pronunciation={{IPA-hns|ˈʊrd̪u|IPA|hi-Urdu.ogglang}}
|image=[[चित्र:URDUARAB.PNG|50px|centre]]
|image=Urdu example.svg
|states=[[पाकिस्तान]], [[भारत]], [[मोरिशस]], [[दक्षिण अफ़्रीका]], [[बहराइन]], [[फिजी]], [[कतार]], [[ओमान]], [[संयुक्त अरब इमिरेटस]], [[बेलायत]], [[जर्मनी]], [[संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका]], [[क्यानडा]], [[सुरिनाम]], [[इरान]], [[अफ़्ग़ानिस्तान]], [[ताजिकिस्तान]], [[उज़्बेकिस्तान]]
|imagesize=120px
|speakers= १०-१५ करोड
|imagecaption=''Urdu'' in [[Urdu alphabet|Perso-Arabic]] script ([[Nastaliq script|Nastaliq]] style)
|familycolor= Indo-European
|states= [[पाकिस्तान]] र [[भारत]]<!--, [[Mauritius]], [[South Africa]]--><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ethnologue.com/language/urd | title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition, Urdu | publisher=Ethnologue | accessdate=5 March 2013}}</ref>
|fam1 =[[हिन्द यूरोपीय]]|
|region = [[दक्षिण एसिया]]
|fam2 =[[हिन्द ईरानी]]
|speakers = १०-१५ करोड़
|fam3 = [[हिन्द आर्य]]|
|familycolor=Indo-European
|countries=[[पाकिस्तान]], [[भारत]] (केवल ५ राज्य मा, दोस्रो आधिकारिक)|
|fam2=[[Indo-Iranian languages|Indo-Iranian]]
|iso1=<code>ur</code>|iso2=<code>urd</code>|iso3=urd|lingua=59-AAF-q
|fam3=[[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]]
|fam4=[[Hindi languages|Central Zone (Hindi)]]
|fam5=[[Western Hindi]]
|fam6=[[Hindustani language|Hindustani]]<ref name=ELL2>{{ELL2|Hindustani}}</ref>
|fam7=[[Khariboli dialect|Khariboli]]<ref name=ELL2/>
|script=[[Arabic script|Arabic]] ([[Urdu alphabet]])<br>[[Devanagari]]<br>[[Urdu Braille|Indian Urdu Braille]] ([[Bharati Braille|Bharati]])<br>[[Urdu Braille|Pakistani Urdu Braille]]
|sign=[[Indian Signing System]] (ISS)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://punarbhava.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1056&Itemid=614|title=Short Term Programmes|author=Gaurav Takkar|work=punarbhava.in|accessdate=29 March 2015}}</ref><br>[[Signed Urdu]]<ref>"Indo-Pakistani Sign Language", ''Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics''</ref>
|nation={{flag|पाकिस्तान}}<br>{{flag|भारत}}; (निम्न [[भारतका राज्य तथा केन्द्र शासित प्रदेशहरू|राज्य]]हरु मा):
* [[बिहार]]
* [[नयाँ दिल्ली]] (Capital Territory)
* [[जम्मू र कश्मीर|जम्मू कश्मीर|]]
* [[उत्तर प्रदेश]]
* [[तेलङ्गाना]]
* [[पश्चिम बङ्गाल]]
 
|agency={{flagicon|Pakistan}} [[National Language Authority]] <br>{{flagicon|India}} [[National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/ |title=National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language |publisher=Urducouncil.nic.in |date= |accessdate=18 December 2011}}</ref>
|iso1=ur
|iso2=urd
|iso3=urd
|glotto=urdu1245
|glottorefname=Urdu
|lingua=59-AAF-q (with Hindi,<br>including 58 varieties: 59-AAF-qaa to 59-AAF-qil)
|map=Urdu_official-language_areas.png
|mapcaption={{legend|#ffc90e|उर्दू पानि सरकारी सह-सरकारी भाषा भएको क्षेत्र}}
{{legend|#fff200|अरु क्षेत्रीय भाषा मात्र सरकारी भाषा भएको क्षेत्र}}
|notice=IPA
}}
{{Contains Urdu text}}
'''उर्दू''' एक [[भाषा]] हो जुन [[पाकिस्तान]] र [[भारत]] मानिसहरूद्वारा बोलिन्छ। यो अधिकांशत। यो पाकिस्तान र [[जम्मू र कश्मीर|जम्मु कश्मीर]]को अधिकारिक भाषा हो। लगभग
१०४
अर्ब मानिषहरू उर्दूमा कुरा गर्छन।
 
उर्दू एक तुर्की शब्द हो। मुगलकाल देखिनै यसको नाम उर्दु राखिएको थियो र पूरै भारतमा प्रसार भयो। यसमा धेरै शब्दहरू [[अरबी भाषा|अरबी]], [[फारसी भाषा|फारसी]] र [[संस्कृत]] भाषा बाट लिईएको छ। यो भारतको
२२औँ सरकारी भाषा हो।
उर्दू भाषाको जन्म भारतमा भएको हो तर यो अहिले [[पाकिस्तान]]को राष्ट्रभाषा हो। उर्दूलाई भारतीय मुस्लिमहरूले पनि बोल्ने गर्छन। उर्दू र हिन्दीमा मात्र शब्दको अलिकति फरक हुन्छ तर उर्दुको लिपी चाहिँ बिल्कुलै फरक हुन्छ र उर्दु लिपी दाहिने बाट देब्रेतिर लेखिन्छ।
 
== उर्दूको अक्षर ==
<table border="२">
<tr>
<th bgcolor="#९९९९९९">अक्षर (अकेला)</th>
<th bgcolor="#९९९९९९">Name of letter</th>
<th bgcolor="#९९९९९९">
<p dir="ltr">अक्षर का नाम</th>
<th bgcolor="#९९९९९९">
उच्चारण</th>
<th bgcolor="#९९९९९९">
IPAमा उच्चारण</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ا</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''alif''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">अलिफ </td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><font face="Arial">अ, आ</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ə, ɑ:]</span> after a consonant;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ب</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''be''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA">बे </span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ब</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[b]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">پ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''pe''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA">पे</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">प</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[p]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ت</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''te *''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA">ते</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">
<span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">त</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">
<span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">dental [t̪]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ٹ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ṭe''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA">टे</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">
<span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ट</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"> retroflex <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ʈ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ث</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''se''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">से</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">स</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[s]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ج</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''jīm''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">जीम</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ज</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[dʒ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">چ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ce''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">चे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">च</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[tʃ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ح</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''baṛī he''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">बडी हे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ह</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[h]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">خ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''xe''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">खे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ख</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[x]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">د</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''dāl''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">दाल</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">द</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">dental <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[d̪]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ڈ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ḍāl''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">डाल</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ड</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">retroflex <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ɖ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ذ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''zāl''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">जाल</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ज</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[z]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ر</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''re''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">रे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">र</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">dental <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[r]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ڑ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ṛe''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">डे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ड</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">retroflex <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ɽ] flap </span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ز</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ze''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">जे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ज</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[z]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ژ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ze''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">जे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ज</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ʒ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">س</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''sīn *''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">सीन</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">स</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[s]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ش</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''śīn''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">शीन</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">श</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ʃ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ص</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''svād''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">स्वाद</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">स</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[s]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ض</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''zvād''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">ज्वाद</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ज</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[z]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ط</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''to''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">तो</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">त</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[t]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ظ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''zo''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">जो</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ज</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[z]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ع</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''aen''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">'अएन</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><font face="Arial">'अ</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ɑ:]</span> after a consonant;
<p>otherwise <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ʔ]</span>,
<span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ə]</span>, or silent.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">غ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''ġaen''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">गएन</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ग</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ɣ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ف</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''fe''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">फे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">फ</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[f]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ق</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''qāf''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">काफ</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">क</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[q]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ک</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''kāf''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">काफ</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">क</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[k]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">گ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''gāf''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">गाफ</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ग</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[g]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ل</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''lām''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">लाम</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ल</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[l]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">م</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''mīm''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">मीम</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">म</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[m]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ن</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''nūn''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">नून</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><font face="Arial">न</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[n]</span> or a nasal vowel</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">و</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''vāo''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">वाओ</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">व,
उ, ऊ, ओ, औ</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[v, u, ʊ, o,au]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ہ, ﮩ, ﮨ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''choṭī he''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">छोटी हे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><font face="Arial">ह्, अः, (आ)</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ɑ]</span> at the end of
a word,
<p>otherwise <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[h]</span> or silent</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ھ</span></td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''do caśmī he''</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">दो चश्मी हे</td>
<td align="center" bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><font face="Arial">-ह (फ, थ, ठ, छ, भ,
</font>
<p><font face="Arial">ध, झ, घ बनाउनको लागि)</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">indicates that the preceding consonant is
<p>aspirated (p, t, ch, k) or murmured (b, d, j, g).</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ی</span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''choṭī ye''</td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">छोटी ये</td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">य, ई, ए, ऐ</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[j, i, e, ɛ]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ے</span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''baṛī ye''</td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">बडी ये</td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span class="IPA"><font face="Arial">ऐ</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[eː]</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span xml:lang="ur" lang="ur">ء</span></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">''hamzā''</td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC">हम्जा</td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><font face="Arial">'अ, -</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#CCCCCC"><span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[ʔ]</span> or silent</td>
</tr>
</table>
{{Commonscat|Urdu}}
 
== सन्दर्भ ==
{{टिप्पणीसूची}}
 
[[श्रेणी:भाषा]]
"https://ne.wikipedia.org/wiki/विशेष:MobileDiff/633193" बाट अनुप्रेषित