* An oligarchy is a सरकार ruled by a small group of powerful individuals . These people may divide power equally or not equally. An oligarchy is different then a true democracy because very few people are given the chance to change things. An oligarchy does not have to be hereditary or passed down from father to son. An oligarchy does not have one clear ruler but several powerful people. Often an oligarchy describes the real way another सरकार is.
== इतिहाँस र Theory of Government ==
The simplest idea of सरकार is those who [[सासन]] over [[जनता]] र [[जमीन]]. This may be as small as a community with some sort of board that looks after the goings on of those who live within it or something a little larger like a [[गाउं]] or as big as a [[continent]] (like [[अष्ट्रेलिया|Australia]]). Those people who rule the land can allow others to [[own]] it. It is a [[deed]] by सरकार that gives this right in the way that [[law]]s describe. Some think they have the right to hold land without सरकार permission. This view is called [[उदारबाद]]. Others think they can do so together as a group with others if they live in [[शान्ति]], without government. This view is called [[anarchism]].
Almost every place on [[पृथ्वी|संसार]] is connected to one र only one government. Places without सरकार are where people follow traditions instead of सरकार rules, small [[border dispute]]d areas र the continent of Antarctica, because almost no people live there. For every place on Earth there is a सरकार that claims [[sovereign control]] over it. The word "sovereign" is old र means "control by a [[राजा]]" ([[sovereign]]). Governments of [[village]]s, [[city|cities]], [[county|counties]] र other [[community|communities]] are also subordinate to the सरकार of the state or province where they exist, र then to that of the [[country]].
It is from Kings र [[feudalism]] that modern governments र [[nation-state]]s came. The [[Capital (city)|capital]] of a country, for instance, is where the King kept उनका [[asset]]s. From this we get the modern idea of [[capital (economics)|capital]] in [[economics]]. A सरकार is said to [[regulate]] [[trade]] as well as to rule over land.
Governments also control people र decide things about what [[morality]] to accept or [[punish]]. In very many countries, there are strict rules about [[sexual intercourse]] र [[drug]]s that are part of [[law]] र offenders are punished for disobeying them.
[[Tax]] is how सरकार is paid for in most countries. People who [[buy]], [[sell]], [[import]], [[invest]], own a house or land, or earn money are made to pay some of the [[money]] to a government.
There are many theories of how to organize सरकार better. These are called theories of [[civics]]. Because सरकार is run by people who can be greedy, many people think [[leader]]s must be [[elect]]ed by some kind of [[democracy]]. That way, if सरकार does not act nice, they can be replaced in the next [[election]]. Still many countries' governments are not a [[democracy]] but other forms in which only a few people have power.
There are many theories of how to run a सरकार better, र keep people from hurting each other. These theories are part of [[politics]]. No matter how a सरकार is chosen, it must do politics to keep [[power]].
There are many ideas about how to settle a [[dispute]] without needing force or violence but by talking र [[trust]]ing. This is part of [[ethics]]. When [[धर्म|religion]] convinces people not to fight or rely on government, we say an [[ethical tradition]] is at work. Most law comes from traditions like that. The [[Ten Commandments]] is one group of laws like that.