"औद्योगिक क्रान्ति" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन
कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन
चिनोहरू: मोबाइल सम्पादन मोबाइल वेब सम्पादन
कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन
'''औद्योगिक क्रान्ति''' १८औँ शताब्दीको मध्यदेखि १९औँ शताब्दीको मध्यसम्म भएको थियो। यस समयमा [[बेलायत]], [[फ्रान्स]], [[स्पेन]], [[नेदरल्यान्ड]], [[बेल्जियम]]ले ठुलाठुला साम्राज्य खडा गरेका थिए। '''औद्योगिक क्रान्ति''' बेलायत, युरोपेली महादेश र संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिकामा १७६० देखि १८२० सम्म र १८४० को समयको नयाँ म्यानुफ्याक्चरिङ प्रक्रियाहरूको सङ्क्रमणकाल थियो। <ref>{{cite web |title=Industrial History of European Countries |url=https://www.erih.net/how-it-started/industrial-history-of-european-countries |website=European Route of Industrial Heritage |publisher=Council of Europe |access-date=2 June 2021 |ref=https://www.erih.net}}</ref> यस सङ्क्रमणमा हाते उत्पादन विधि मेसिनमा रुपान्तरण भयो, नयाँ रासायनिक म्यानुफ्याक्चरिङको, स्टिल उत्पादनको बिकास भयो, वाष्प उर्जा र जल उर्जाको उपयोग बढ्यो, मेसिन टुलको बिकास भयो र मेकनाइज्ड फ्याक्ट्री प्रणालीको उदय भयो।औद्योगिक क्रान्तिले जनसंख्या वृद्धि दरमा पनि ठूलो वृद्धि ल्यायो।
रोजगार,पूँजी लागानी र उत्पादन मुल्यको हिसाबले टेक्सटाइल उद्योग औद्योगिक क्रान्तिको समयमा अग्रणी उद्योग थियो। आधुनिक उत्पादन प्रक्रिया सुरु गर्ने पहिलो उद्योग पनि टेक्स्टाइल उद्योग नै थियो।<ref name="David S. Landes 1969">{{cite book|first= David S.|last= Landes|date=1969|title= The Unbound Prometheus|publisher= Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge|isbn= 978-0-521-09418-4}}</ref>{{rp|40}}
The Industrial Revolution began in [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]] and many of the [[Innovation|technological]] and [[British industrial architecture|architectural innovations]] were of British origin.<ref>{{cite book|title= Reconceptualizing the Industrial Revolution |last1= Horn|first1=Jeff |last2= Rosenband|first2= Leonard|last3= Smith|first3= Merritt|year= 2010|publisher =MIT Press|location=Cambridge MA, London |isbn= 978-0-262-51562-7}}</ref><ref>E. Anthony Wrigley, "Reconsidering the Industrial Revolution: England and Wales." ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' 49.01 (2018): 9–42.</ref> By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation,<ref>{{cite book|title= Capitalism: A complete understanding of the nature and value of human economic life|last=Reisman|first= George|year= 1998|isbn= 978-0-915463-73-2
|publisher =Jameson Books |page=127}}</ref> controlling a global trading empire with [[Territorial evolution of the British Empire|colonies]] in North America and the Caribbean, and with major military and political hegemony on the [[Indian subcontinent]], particularly with the [[Proto-industrialization|proto-industrialised]] [[Mughal Bengal]], through the activities of the [[East India Company]].<ref name="tong">{{cite book |first=Junie T. |last=Tong |year=2016 |title=Finance and Society in 21st Century China: Chinese Culture Versus Western Markets |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_UQGDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA151 |publisher=CRC Press |page=151 |isbn=978-1-317-13522-7}}</ref><ref name="esposito">{{cite book |editor-first1=John L. |editor-last1=Esposito |editor1-link=John L. Esposito |year=2004 |title=The Islamic World: Past and Present |volume=Volume 1: Abba - Hist. |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT190 |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=174 |isbn=978-0-19-516520-3}}</ref><ref name="rayB">{{cite book |first=Indrajit |last=Ray |year=2011 |title=Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857) |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CHOrAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA7 |publisher=Routledge |pages=7–10 |isbn=978-1-136-82552-1}}</ref><ref name="David_Landes_1999"/> The development of trade and the rise of business were among the major causes of the Industrial Revolution.<ref name="David S. Landes 1969"/>{{rp|15}}<!--Laws also shaped the revolution, such as courts ruling in favor of [[property rights]]. An entrepreneurial spirit and consumer revolution helped drive [[industrialisation]] in Britain which after 1800 was emulated in Belgium, the United States, and France.<ref name="Kiely"/> -->
The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists have said the most important effect of the Industrial Revolution was that the [[standard of living]] for the general population in the western world began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries.<ref name="Lectures on Economic Growth"/><ref name="Feinstein2014"/><ref name="SzreterMooney2014"/>
[[Lists of countries by GDP per capita|GDP per capita]] was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern [[capitalism|capitalist]] economy,<ref name="The Industrial Revolution"/> while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita [[economic growth]] in capitalist economies.<ref name="The Industrial Revolution ''Past and Future''"/> Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the [[History of the world|history of humanity]] since the [[domestication]] of animals and plants.<ref name="ReviewOfCambridge"/>
The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and [[social change]]s.<ref name="revolution"/><ref name="google1"/><ref name="Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution"/><ref name="lorenzen"/> [[Eric Hobsbawm]] held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s,<ref name="revolution"/> while [[T. S. Ashton]] held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830.<ref name="google1"/> Rapid [[industrialization]] first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s,<ref name="auto">{{cite web|last1=Gupta|first1=Bishnupriya|title=Cotton Textiles and the Great Divergence: Lancashire, India and Shifting Competitive Advantage, 1600–1850|url=http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/papers/broadberry-gupta.pdf|website=International Institute of Social History|publisher=Department of Economics, University of Warwick|access-date=5 December 2016}}</ref> with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. [[Textile industry|Mechanized textile production]] spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron, and [[coal]] emerging [[#Belgium|in Belgium]] and the United States and later textiles in France.<ref name="David S. Landes 1969"/>
== बेलायती औद्योगिक क्रान्तिका कारणहरू ==
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