"साधारण चिकित्सक" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन्
चिनोहरू: मोबाइल सम्पादन मोबाइल वेब सम्पादन
चिनोहरू: मोबाइल सम्पादन मोबाइल वेब सम्पादन
A '''general practitioner''' ('''GP''') or '''family physician''' ('''FP''') is a [[physician]]/[[medical doctor]] who provides [[primary care]]. A GP/FP treats acute र chronic illnesses, provides preventive care र health education for all ages र both sexes. Some also care for hospitalized patients, do minor [[surgery]] and/or [[obstetrics]]. The term general practitioner is common in the [[संयुक्त अधिराज्य|United Kingdom]] र some other [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]] countries, where the word "physician" is only used for certain specialists र not for GPs.
== सयुक्त अधिराज्य ==
{{NHS medical career grades}}
In the [[संयुक्त अधिराज्य|United Kingdom]], doctors wishing to become GPs take at least ४ years training after [[Medical school (United Kingdom)|medical school]], which is usually an undergraduate course of five to six years (or a graduate course of four to six years) leading to the degrees of [[Bachelors of Medicine र Surgery|Bachelor of Medicine र Bachelor of Surgery]] (MB ChB).
Up until २००५, those wishing to become a GP had to do a minimum of the following postgraduate training:
* one year as a [[pre-registration house officer]] (PRHO) (formerly called a houseman), in which the trainee would usually spend ६ months on a general surgical ward र ६ months on a general medical ward in a hospital;
* two years as a [[senior house officer]] (SHO) - often on a General Practice Vocational Training Scheme (GP-VTS) in which the trainee would normally complete four ६-month jobs in hospital specialties such as obstetrics & gynaecology, paediatrics, geriatric medicine, accident & emergency or psychiatry;
* one year as a general practice registrar.
This process has changed under the programme [[Modernising Medical Careers]]. Doctors graduating from २००५ onwards will have to do a minimum of ५ years postgraduate training:
* two years of ''Foundation Training'', in which the trainee will do a rotation around either six ४-month jobs or eight ३-month jobs - these include at least ३-months in general medicine र ३-months in general surgery, but will also include jobs in other areas;
* two years as on a General Practice Vocational Training Scheme (GP-VTS) in which the trainee would normally complete four ६-month jobs in hospital specialties such as obstetrics & gynaecology, paediatrics, geriatric medicine, accident & emergency or psychiatry;
* one year as a general practice registrar.
At the end of the one year registrar post, the doctor must pass an examination in order to be allowed to practice independently as a GP. This summative assessment consists of a video of two hours of consultations with patients, an audit cycle completed during their registrar year, a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ), र a standardised assessment of competencies by their trainer.
Membership of the [[Royal College of General Practitioners]] is optional र can be awarded by examination, or by systematic assessment of an existing practitioner. After passing the exam or assessment, they are awarded the specialist qualification of MRCGP – Member of the Royal College of General Practitioners. General practitioners are not required to hold the MRCGP, but it is considered desirable. In addition, many hold qualifications such as the DCH (Diploma in Child Health of the [[Royal College of Paediatrics र Child Health]]) and/or the DRCOG (Diploma of the [[Royal College of Obstetricians र Gynaecologists]]) and/or the DGH (Diploma in Geriatric Medicine of the [[Royal College of Physicians]]. Some General Practitioners also hold the MRCP (Member of the [[Royal College of Physicians]]) or other specialist qualifications, particularly if they had a career in another specialty before coming into General Practice.
There are many arrangements under which general practitioners can work in the UK. While the main career aim is becoming a principal or partner in a GP surgery, many become salaried or non-principal GPs, work in hospitals in GP-led acute care units, or perform locum work. Whichever of these roles they fill the vast majority of GPs receive most of their income from the [[National Health Service]] (NHS). Principals र partners in GP surgeries are self-employed, but they have contractual arrangements with the NHS which give them considerable predictability of income.
The MB ChB medical degree is generally considered equivalent to the North American MD medical degree. Doctors educated in the United States, Canada, Ireland, र Great Britain have more ability to move between the countries than other national systems.
Visits to GP surgeries are free in the United Kingdom, but most adults of working age who are not on benefits have to pay a standard charge for [[prescription only medicine]].
[[File:Jericho Health Centre 20050326.jpg|thumb|left|GPs in the United Kingdom may operate in community health centres.]]Recent reforms to the [[NHS]] have included changing the [[General medical services|GP contract]]. General practitioners are now not required to work unsociable hours, र get paid to some extent according to their [[Quality Outcomes Framework|performance]], e.g. numbers of patients treated, what treatments were administered, र the health of their catchment area. They are encouraged to prescribe medicines by their generic names. The IT system used for assessing their income based on these criteria is called [[QMAS]]. A GP can expect to earn about £७०,००० a year without doing any overtime, although this figure is extremely variable. A recent report [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1759412,00.html] notes that a GP can potentially earn £३००k per year. These potential earnings have been the subject of much criticism in the press for being excessive [http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,1756277,00.html].
GP Practices have been criticised by their lack of accountability, in particular with complaints procedures, as recent report described "an NHS complaints system failing to detect issues of professional misconduct or criminal activity".[http://www.the-shipman-inquiry.org.uk/5r_page.asp?ID=4637] Practices are independent contractors र thus are able to exercise discretion in how they conduct themselves, the [[Primary Care Trust]] is not able to handle complaints before the Practice has, र patients do run a risk of being removed from the practitioner's list [http://www.the-shipman-inquiry.org.uk/5r_page.asp?ID=4637].
== सयुक्त राज्य अमेरीका ==
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