"फ्रान्सेली राज्यक्रान्ति" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

=== फ्रान्स ===
क्रान्ति फ्रान्सको समाजमा कयौं परिवर्तन ल्यायो,। ती मध्ये केही सर्वस्वीकार्य छन् भने केहीमा अझै बहस जारी छन्। {{sfn|Stewart|1951|pp=783–94}} लुइस चौधौको पालामा, राजनैतिक शक्ति भर्सेलिजमा केन्द्रित थियो र राजाको नियन्त्रणमा थियो। राजाको शक्ति अथाह व्यक्तिगत धन, सेना माथिको नियन्त्रण र क्लर्जी, प्रादेशिक गभर्नर, वकिल तथा न्यायाधीशको नियुक्तिबाट मिलेको थियो।{{sfn|Thompson|1952|p=22}} एक वर्ष भन्दा कम समयमा, राजालाई नाम मात्रको बनाइयो, कुलीनहरूलाई सम्पत्ति र उपाधीबाट, चर्च र यसका सम्पत्तिबाट बञ्चित गरियो। क्लर्जी, न्यायाधीश र मेजिस्ट्रेटको नियन्त्रण राज्यबाट गरिने भयो र सेनाको साथ साथ क्रान्तिकारी नेसनल गार्डको व्यवस्था गरियो। १७८९ को केन्द्रिय तत्त्व "स्वतन्त्रता, समानता र बन्धुत्व"को नारा थियो। र "मानव तथा नागतिकको अधिकारको घओषणा"लाई नै पूर्ण रुपमा क्रान्तिको रुप मानियो। "{{sfn|Lefebvre|1947|p=212}}
==== क्याथोलिक चर्चको स्थिति ====
One of the most heated controversies during the Revolution was the status of the Catholic Church.{{sfn|Kennedy|1989|pp=145–167}} In 1788, it held a dominant position within society; to be French meant to be a Catholic. By 1799, much of its property and institutions had been confiscated and its senior leaders dead or in exile. Its cultural influence was also under attack, with efforts made to remove such as Sundays, holy days, saints, prayers, rituals and ceremonies. Ultimately these attempts not only failed but aroused a furious reaction among the pious; opposition to these changes was a key factor behind the revolt in the Vendée.{{sfn|Kennedy|1989|pp=338–353}}
 
[[File:Le Bataillon Carré, Affaire de Fougères 1793 (Square Battalion).jpg|thumb|upright=1.0|left|The 1793 [[War in the Vendée]] was in part sparked by opposition to state persecution of the Catholic church]]
 
Over the centuries, charitable foundations had been set up to fund hospitals, poor relief, and schools; when these were confiscated and sold off, the funding was not replaced, causing massive disruption to these support systems.{{sfn|Sutherland|2002|pp=1-24}} Under the ''Ancien régime'', medical assistance for the rural poor was often provided by nuns, acting as nurses but also physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries; the Revolution abolished most of these orders without replacing organised nursing support.{{sfn|McHugh|2012|pp=428–456}} Demand remained strong and after 1800 nuns resumed their work in hospitals and on rural estates. They were tolerated by officials because they had widespread support and were a link between elite male physicians and distrustful peasants who needed help.{{sfn|Léonard|1977|pp=887–907}}
 
== सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरू ==
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